Python Web Frameworks
Table of Contents
Python is scripting, interpreted, object-oriented, and high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. This was first released in the year 1991. It comes in the list of Top10 Programming Languages. It is a dynamic discipline type and has strong typing as well.
What is Python?
Python is an interpreted, object-oriented, high-level programming language with dynamic semantics.
Compared to many languages, Python is easy to learn and to use. Not surprisingly, Python is among the top 10 languages in the world, due to its open and flexible nature.
Python is used by Google, Wikipedia, and Yahoo! Amongst several other organizations, CERN and NASA.
It is also used in Web applications as a “scripting language.” That means it can automate a similar series of tasks and make them more effective.
The language is used in mathematical and scientific computation, and also in AI programs.
The only thing bad about Python is, It is slow in nature.
Categories of Web Frameworks in Python:
1. Full-Stack Frameworks
This category of the frameworks provides a complete package that can fulfill the developer’s requirements like Form validation, form generators, and template layouts. These are the components that are commonly included in the full-stack frameworks.
List of Full-Stack Frameworks.
- Pylons Framework
This category of frameworks is very lightweight in nature because they do not offer more components as a full-stack framework. That’s why developers need to put some extra effort according to the requirements when he/she is using this framework.
List of Microframeworks Frameworks.
3. Asynchronous Framework
This category of the framework allows you to handle a large set of concurrent connections. These frameworks are also lightweight in nature and used when handling a large no of requests concurrently. This asynchronous framework is mainly built for Python and it also uses the asyncio library.
List of Asynchronous Frameworks.
List of Popular Web Frameworks
Let’s understand the python frameworks in a quick manner.
Django is the most used web application development framework that encourages developers to build Python applications rapidly. This framework uses a pragmatic design and follows the principle called Don’t Repeat Yourself (DRY). It comes in the list of top 10 web application development frameworks.
- Good Community Support
- Authentication support
- URL routing
- web servers
- Template engine
- Object-relational mapper (ORM)
- Database schema migrations
CubicWeb is an open-source, semantic, and free Python web framework. This framework provides an effective way for developers in building web applications by reusing the components called cubes. This is considered one of the best solutions in building semantic web app development which promotes efficiency, reusability, and quality.
- Reusable components
- Support for multiple databases
- Security workflows
- Simplifies data-related queries with RQL (Relational Query Language) embedding
This framework is based on the Model View Controller(MVC) design pattern, Giotto is an opensource application framework for Python. In order to allow web designers, web developers, and system admins to work independently, Giotto separates Model, View, and Controller elements in order.
- Generic views and models(MV)
- The automatic and in-built URL routing
- RESTful interface to regular CRUD site “Browser Update”
- Multiple pluggable controllers Persistence of the database can be achieved using SQLAlchemy
- Functional CRUD patterns
- Offering RESTful interfaces
- Availability of Jinja2 for HTML templates.
4. Pylons Framework
It is an open-source web-based framework that mainly based on the rapid development of applications.
This framework is mainly designed for incorporating some of the properties and best elements of popular languages such as Ruby, Perl, and Python.
- Text-based templating
- URL Dispatch
- URL mapping based on routes configuration via WebHelpers
- HTML form generation and validation.
5. Pyramid Framework
The pyramid is one of the most significant Python frameworks, too. The main goal of this Framework is to accomplish and improve less complex applications.
The most important aspect of this framework is its capacity to work with full and small-scale applications on an equal footing. In fact, a multitude of tools is available to expand their capabilities in compliance with the requirements.
- Function decorators
- URL generation
- Single file applications
- Flexible authorization and authentication
- Asset specifications and templating
6. Web2Py Framework
This is the most commonly used python scalable and open-source platform that enables users to build Web applications very easily and quickly.
Web2Py supports all of the common OSes. In addition, this framework offers a simple way to simplify the process of creating web applications through a web-based interface, a web server, and a SQL database.
This framework allows users to edit, build, manage, and deploy web applications through web browsers.
- Security – It prevents the most common types of vulnerabilities.
- Ability to run on any web hosting platform that provides support for either Python or Java and Python
- Backward compatibility
- Follows MVC-pattern
- Devoid of installation and configuration requirements
- Provides support for internationalization
- Readability of multiple protocols
- Role-based access control
TurboGears is a Python Web application platform for data-oriented, open-source, full-stack applications. The architecture allows developers to rapidly create extensible, data-driven web applications.
TurboGears come with intelligible templating, in addition to supporting a flexible and powerful ORM. The full-stack architecture makes use of components such as Genshi, Repoze, SQLAlchemy, and WebOb to create applications that need connectivity to the database easily and quickly.
- MVC-style architecture
- Multi-database transactions
- It supports SQLAlchemy and SQLObject.
- Uses Pylons as a web server
- Availability of command-line tools and PasteScript templates.
- Highly modular
- Built-in support for database sharing.
The construction of different applications in Python is one of the most used micro web frameworks by users. It does not include any dependencies; instead, it only consists of one standard Python library and is also distributed as a single file module.
One important feature of this design is that it helps developers to interact more closely with the hardware. Bottle Framework is ideally designed for the production and creation of simple applications for personal use.
- Allows developers to work closer to the hardware
- Adapter support for 3rd-party template engines and WSGI/HTTP servers
- Allows simple access from cookies, data, file uploads, and other HTTP-related metadata
- Built-in HTTP server
- Plugin support for different databases
- Provides request-dispatching routes having URL-parameter support
CherryPy is a well-known open-source and minimalist platform that uses the object-oriented paradigm mainly to create web applications within a short time.
The applications developed using this framework are by definition stand-alone and have their own multi-threaded web server. Such programs can be implemented in an ordinary Python framework that can run anywhere.
- A robust plugin framework built-in.
- Runs on Android.
- Runs on multiple HTTP servers at once.
- Powerful configuration system.
The Hug is designed to allow developers from Python to create an API once, and then use it anywhere they wish. The Python framework simplifies the creation of APIs by making several interfaces available.
It’s branded as Python 3 ‘s fastest Web platform. Hug only consumes resources when necessary, and uses Cython to compile.
- Managed models built-in
- A validation driven by annotations
- Follow script once, using theory anywhere
- Will automated reporting support
Flask is yet another common framework for Python. Inspired by the Sinatra Ruby project, the microframework includes WSGI toolkit and Jinja2 template and Werkzeug. Flask is readily adaptable, due to its lightweight and flexible nature.
Flask helps developers to create a strong base for web applications from which any kind of extensions needed can be used. The micro-framework supports Google App Engine.
- Jinja2 templating
- Lightweight framework
- Built-in debugger and development server
- Full support for unit testing
- Enhanced REST support
- A minimal and pluggable architecture.
- Statistical file serving
- Handling HTTP requests
- Availability of flexible application structure to store files.
- Improved support for cookies in order to establish client-side sessions.
Morepath is a Python web microframework, with super powershttps://morepath.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
MorePath is a model-driven and versatile WSGI framework for Python, and is designed primarily to execute more use cases. This also assumes responsibility for Answer Set Application Programming (ASAP), which includes specific RESTful Web Services python data structures.
- Comes with all the resources needed to build RESTful Web services
- Generic user interfaces are easy to build as subclassification
- Clear, coherent, and universal extension and override mechanism
- Flexible access permissions are available and are easy
- It makes standardized user interfaces extremely easy to build
Falcon is a stable, high-performance Python web framework for building backends and microservices for large-scale apps. It promotes the architectural style of REST and attempts to do as little as possible while remaining highly effective.
- DRY requests are handled through hooks and middleware components.
- Extra speed boost, with Cython ‘s assistance.
- A codebase that is highly optimized and extensible.
- Precise, quick response to HTTP errors.
- Unit testing possibility through mocks and WSGI assistants.
- Ease of control and access by question and response classes for bodies and headers.
Pycnic is an object-oriented and open source microframework believed to be the fastest for building JSON-based APIs.
Picnic is a simple template-engine for writing python modules.
- Effective handling of routing.
- Built-in error handling mechanisms.
- Enhanced support for cookies.
- Capable enough in handling JSON-based requests.
It is an asynchronous Python framework that relies primarily on features of Python 3.5 +, i.e., async & expect. AIOHTTP serves as a client-side application and uses the asyncio library, which is why it is called asynchronous.
One of the benefits of this is that without using Callback Hell, it supports both Server WebSockets and Client WebSockets.
It also provides a router and request object to alter the redirection of queries with respect to functions developed to handle the related tasks.
- Allows to create the views effectively
- Supporting Middlewares
- Plug-in routing
- Supports all WebSockets clients and WebSockets servers without the Callback Hell
Sanic is an open-source Web framework for Python that is developed on top of the uvloop. Because of one of its main features, it has the name asynchronous, i.e. it offers quick HTTP responses through asynchronous request handling.
This also supports request handlers and compares them to await / async functions from Python 3.5. This versatility leads to non-blocking capabilities provided and performance increased.
- Plugin support
- Able to read and write cookies
- Class-based views
- Handlers with easy to apply decorators support
Growler is an asynchronous framework which is Inspired by the NodeJS and the Express/Connect frameworks, Growler is a micro web framework written top of the Python’s asyncio library.
It is based on connecting and express frameworks for Node.js, Object Relational Mapping (ORM), and Templating.
- Can convert the entire application into the single executable file
- Support for a multitude of open-source packages
- Use decorators for writing clean, reusable code
We saw a brief introduction to Python as a programming language and why python is at the 1st position of Top10 Programming Languages in this article. We also based on the comprehensive list of all available Python frameworks and libraries that could be used to create the most successful programs that fulfill your business needs.
We addressed nearly all of the big Python frameworks in this article with as many specifics as possible. I hope you get a good understanding of the Python frameworks and the main features thereof.